But it's very difficult to remove all residues, the residues can cause allergies and biological compounds may cause discolourations on carpets. For commercial applications, a specially designed cylindrical counter-rotating brushing system is used, without a vacuum cleaner. Machine scrubbing is more typical, in that hand scrubbing generally cleans only the top third of carpet. Encapsulation In the 1990s, new polymers began literally encapsulating (crystallizing) soil particles into dry residues on contact. In the conventional cleaning process surfactant molecules attach themselves to oily soil particles, suspending them (emulsification) so that they can be easily rinsed away. Surfactant (detergent) molecules and emulsified soils which escape being rinsed away, remain in the fibre and continue to attract soiling, causing the condition of the carpet to degenerate; often re-soiling faster than before it was subjected to the cleaning process. Encapsulators are speciality detergent polymers which become part of the detergent system. As drying occurs (20-30 min. drytime), after cleaning, these encapsulators bind the detergent molecules and residual soils in a brittle, crystalline structure. Detergent and soil particles can no longer attract other soils and are easily removed by dry vacuuming. In addition to binding the detergent and soil residues the encapsulation chemistry coats the clean fibre with the same brittle film. This reduces the fibre’s affinity for oily and particulate soils. As this brittle film"breaks away" and more soil is removed, the appearance of the fibre improves as opposed to soiling more rapidly. Products which also employ fluorochemical technology, display dramatically extended anti re-soiling time periods. Cleanisuggests encapsulation improves carpet appearance, compared to other systems; and it is favorable in terms of high-traffic needs, operator training, equipment expense, and lack of wet residue. Encapsulation carpet cleaning also keeps carpets cleaner for longer periods of time compared to other methods. Encapsulation also avoids the drying time of carpet shampoos, making the carpet immediately available for use. The use of encapsulation to create a crystalline residue that can be immediately (20-30 min. drytime) vacuumed (as opposed to the residue of wet cleaning systems, which generally requires an additional day before vacuuming) is a newer technology that has recently become an accepted method for commercial and residential deep cleaning. Bonnet
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) After club soda mixed with cleaning product, other products are also possible, is deposited onto the surface as mist, a round buffer or "bonnet" scrubs the mixture with rotating motion. This industry machine resembles a floor buffer, with an absorbent spin or oscillating pad that attracts soil and is rinsed or replaced repeatedly. The bonnet method is not strictly dry-cleaning and involves significant drying time. To reduce pile distortion, the absorbent bonnet should be kept well-lubricated with cleaning solution. Its not recommended to dunk the bonnet in a bucket of cleaning solution and then wring it out with a mop-bucket wringer, then the bonnet is to wet. Its very important to change or turn the bonnet early, Bonnets can become filled with soil in just a couple hundred square feet. And once loaded with soil, the bonnet will not hold any more; instead, it simply moves the soil from one area to another. The overly wet bonnet also deposits residues that attract soils when they are dry, creating the need to clean more often. Its recommended for robust and not for high floor carpet, it swirls the floor. It distorts pile and grinds dirt deeper in carpet fiber also it has an abrasive effect. When there is a large amount of foreign material in the carpet, extraction with a wet process may be needed. Normally, the spin-bonnet method may not be as capable of sanitizing carpet fibers due to the lack of hot water, for this a spezial thermo machine is needed, here the buffing machine is equipped with a heating, to heat up the bonnet, but a post-cleaning application of an antimicrobial agent is used to make up for this. Compared to steam cleaning, the small amounts of water required with spin-bonnet carpet cleaning favor water-conservation considerations. It only cleans the top of the carpet 1/8 inch but its very fast for wide areas. But bonnet cleaning is not the best mechanism for completely removing the chemical that is pre-sprayed onto a carpet. Its recommended that only surfactant free or encapsulating products are used. On the other hand, the re-soiling is great. Shampoo Wet shampoo cleaning with rotary machines, followed by thorough wet vacuuming, was widespread until about the 1970s, but industry perception of shampoo cleaning changed with the advent of encapsulation.